Issue 172

The Entourage Effect in Mushrooms: Natural psilocybin may outperform synthetic

A new study from the Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical Center has indicated that natural psilocybin extracts may demonstrate superior efficacy to synthetic psilocybin extracts.

Many of the clinical trials investigating psilocybin use synthetic extracts rather than natural ones. This is because synthetic extracts will contain psilocybin alone, whereas natural psilocybe mushroom extracts will contain several different compounds such as psilocybin, psilocin, baeocystin and norbaeocystin.

However, in 2011 Dr Ethan Russo put forward the theory of the Entourage Effect in cannabis whereby multiple compounds work together to create a therapeutic effect, which many believe may also apply to mushrooms. However, the theory has only been touched on a handful of times in the scientific literature in relation to psilocybe mushrooms.

Published in Molecular Psychiatry, results from the new study indicate that the natural extract increased the levels of synaptic proteins associated with neuroplasticity in key brain regions, including the frontal cortex, hippocampus, amygdala, and striatum.



POLITICO reports that a psychedelic drug selected by AI for its promise to precisely target mental illness faces a critical test at the Food and Drug Administration.

“The FDA is expected to decide in the next few weeks whether to approve an application by San Francisco-based Mindstate Design Labs for a clinical trial of the psychedelic drug 5-MeO-MiPT.

“Approval would mark a win for two hot areas in drug development: psychedelics thought to have promise in treating conditions like depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, and AI, which drugmakers hope will speed products to market.”

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Technology Networks explores what 2024 has in store for psychedelic science and speaks to researchers to find out more about the landmark psychedelic science events

“In 2024, scientists and the general public will both grapple with the consequences of psychedelic legalisation. The hype and promise around psychedelic drug trials have accelerated legislation to liberalise access to these compounds. In the US, Oregon and Colorado have set out ahead of other states. Both states have legalised psychedelic-assisted therapy while decriminalising or drastically reducing penalties on the personal possession of drugs.”

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Gilgamesh Pharmaceuticals has been awarded a $14 Million National Institute on Drug Abuse grant to advance its novel, cardiac-safe ibogaine analogue for the treatment of Opioid Use Disorder.

PharmAla Biotech in collaboration with Cortexa has supplied GMP Psilocybin for therapeutic use outside of a clinical trial to a patient under the authorised prescriber scheme in a world first.

Clearmind Medicine has received approval from the Israeli Ministry of Health to commence a clinical trial for alcohol use disorder using its MEAI-based CMND-100 oral capsule.

Cybin has announced the closing of its previously announced private placement of common shares at a price of U.S.$0.43. Proceeds from the Private Placement were U.S.$150m.


A new study has shed light on psychedelics’ complex relationship to psychosis and mania.

A new paper highlights important methodological concerns with psychedelic research.


Knowable Magazine reports that, according to drug law expert Robert Mikos, the push to legalise psychedelics is likely to heighten tensions between state and federal law.

Vox reports that, in Oregon, four years ago the state decriminalised all drugs, however, now it’s trying to course-correct — and might make a mistake in the process.


The UK government has launched a campaign to help improve veterans’ access to healthcare services, and opened applications to the £2.52 million Veterans Mobility Fund.

A new poll has revealed that the mental health of European workers is at breaking point as stress levels rise, with one-third of people saying their mental health is negatively impacting their productivity.